Vol. 2 Issue 1 August 2020- September 2022

Vol. 2 Issue 1 August 2020- September 2022


Kathford Journal of Engineering and Management is a peer-reviewed journal committed to publish scholarly empirical and conceptual research articles, book reviews, case studies and project works in engineering, applied science, management and related fields.


Aug 2020 - Sep 2022


Table of content


Cement Stabilization of soft soil subgrade and Cost Analysis View abstract

The soft soil when present in subgrade creates a lot of problem in highways. Due to soft soil subgrade, the rutting is predominant cause of flexible pavement failure all around the world. This kind of soil is either replaced or modified prior to construction of other layers of road to minimize the formation of rut. This study deals with stabilization of soft soil subgrade by cement. The sample was collected from a depth around existing road subgrade. A series of laboratory tests on untreated soil sample was first done to determine the competency of soil as a subgrade layer followed by preparation of sample with varying stabilizer content i.e. 4%, 6% and 8% cement by weight of dry soil, to determine the optimum stabilizer content. Samples with varying cement content were also prepared for California Bearing Ratio (hereafter, CBR) and Unconfined Compressive Strength (hereafter, UCS)with different curing periods i.e. 7 days for CBR and 3, 7, 14 and 28 days for UCS. UCS test on these sample showed a significant improvement over the values of natural soil without stabilizer. CBR showed a similar trend and the resulting modified soil was competent enough to be used as a subgrade for heavy traffic condition. The pavement was modelled using Kenpave for 30 and 50 million standard axle (msa) traffic intensity to determine the ideal pavement section for two types of pavement used in this study. In addition, the cost of construction for replacement method and for cement stabilization are determined using norms of Department of Road and District rate of Kathmandu and are compared. The cement stabilized soil with optimum content is found to be cheaper than conventional method of replacement.

Harish Paneru, Mohan Prasad Acharya and Indra Prasad Acharya
Capital Structure of Commercial Banks: A Comparative Analysis of NIBL, NABIL, HBL, EBL and SBI View abstract

Capital structure is the combination of long term sources of funding i.e. preferred stock, common stock and long – term debt. Those are used to finance the firm. Capital structure analysis is the basis for analyzing the usefulness of accumulation from different sources of capital composition of capital is another factor, which affects the profitability. Loan capital dominant enterprises have less chance for prosperity despite of their huge profits.Capital structure decision is an important financial effect of capital on profitability and value of the firm. The present study will try to analyze and examine the capital structure of the commercial banks in Nepal. This article compares the capital structure of NIBL, NABIL, HBL, EBL and SBI five commercial banks which are currently operated as ‘A’ class banks in Nepal. It evaluates the capital structure and concludes that the total debt ratio of entire five banks is fluctuating. In order to compare the variables financial analysis, leverage analysis and correlation have been used as analytical tools. The conclusion is drawn on the basis of the total proportion of debt and equity capital of the institutions dealing with the problems in terms of capital formation and their overall effects and difficulties in its implementation.

Mohan Khanal
A Study on Temporal Variation of Snow and Glacier in Langtang Basin View abstract

Snow cover and glacier in the Himalaya play a major role for generating stream flow in South Asia. It is already observed that the snowline is retreating in the Himalaya region. While there are relatively more studies on glaciers fluctuation in this region, studies on snow cover are relatively rare. Present study is aimed to analyze the temporal variation of snow and glacier cover (both debris and clean ice covered) of Langtang area within the catchment 432.32 sq.km at outlet 28°12'10.78"N and 85°27'44.58"E. Currently, we used intermittent medium resolution satellite imageries (Landsat) to study the fluctuation in snow cover and glacier area in the Langtang catchment. Our analysis revealed that the glaciers in the study area are tentatively shrinking in average. More specifically, the Landsat Satellite images of the concerned area processed through ERDAS Imagine and their detailed analysis conducted in ArcGIS show that the minimum snow coverage area is declining and maximum snow coverage is in the average range and in the case of debris coverage glacier and clean ice glacier, the trend is declining. The novelty of this study was to develop a robust process having

Nirajan Devkota, Narendra Man Shakya
Experimental Study on the Properties of Concrete with Partial Replacement of Sand by Plastic Pet Bottle Fiber View abstract

The use of plastic is increasing day by day, although steps were taken to reduce its consumption. The suitability of replacement of plastic pet bottle fiber as sand in concrete and its advantages are studied here. Plastic bottles are a major issue of solid waste disposal. Several things which were invented for our convenient life are responsible for polluting environment due to improper waste management technique. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is used for carbonated beverage and water bottles. This is an environmental issue as waste plastic bottles are difficult to biodegrade and involve processes either to recycle or reuse. In the Modern world, the construction industry is searching for cost-effective materials for enhancing the strength of concrete structures. This study is carried out with the possibility of using the waste PET bottles as the partial replacement of fine aggregate in Ordinary Portland cement. The percentage substitution that gives higher compressive strength was used for determining the other properties such as flexural strength test.

Sudip Joshi
Application of Green Technologies to Reduce Impacts of Urban Non-Point Sources Pollution View abstract

Storm water runoff from different types of urban catchments and discharge from LID system applied in urban catchments were monitored since 2009 to 2017 in Kongju National University. The performance of green technology (GI) system was evaluated to mitigate the problem like pollutant treatment and restore natural hydrological cycle. The result showed that the urban catchments were sources of pollutants like sediments, organics, nutrients and heavy metals. Thus, the concentrations of these pollutants are highly dependent on the antecedent dry days and types of catchments. Since, roads and parking lots observed higher concentration of sediment and organics however heavy metals were highly contributed by the rooftop areas. Moreover, the application of green technologies could be a better solution to mitigate the problems associated with urbanization. Similarly, GI technology were highly significant to reduce runoff generated and can restore natural hydrological cycle. Lastly, the pollutant removal efficiency of different system was significant due to application of different media and plants.

Sher Bahadur Gurung, Franz Kevin F. Geronimo, Jungsun Hong, Lee-Hyung Kim
Importance of Local Climate Zones and Urban Heat Island study in Nepa View abstract

Various scientific research and literatures have documented the effect of urbanization on local climate. Urban rural temperature and humidity difference i.e. Urban Heat Island (UHI) and Urban Dry Island (UDI) respectively have been reported for cities and regions worldwide, mostly with local field sites that are extremely diverse in their physical and climatological characteristics. Generally, the UHI study relies on simplistic descriptors such as “urban” and “rural”. While these descriptors may be evocative of the landscape, they are insufficient in providing information like its site properties which have direct impacts on the surface layer climate. To fulfil the gap and for the clarity “local climate zone” (LCZ) classification is a very good tool. Each classification is unique in its combination of surface structure, cover, and human activity. The standard framework for each zone helps to classify an area for reporting and comparing field sites and their temperature observations. The LCZ not only helps in UHI and UDI study but also helps in planning smart environment and human friendly cities, landscape, and global climate change investigation. Nepal now being a federal state, many states having smart developmental drive of cities focusing only on physical infrastructure without considering UHI effect must incorporate study of cities by LCZ for sustainable urbanization.

Deepak Bikram Thapa Chhetri, Pukar Regmi
One Dimensional Ground Response analysis in Patan: Implications to Damage Pattern due to the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake View abstract

The 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake caused extensive damages in Kathmandu Valley located about 78 km SE from the epicenter. The damage patterns in the city clearly indicated the subsurface geology of the city had strongly modified the ground motion causing typical damages to tall structures. In this contribution, following one-dimensional approach, a ground response analysis is performed in Patan utilizing the deep borehole, shear wave profile and dynamic soil properties adopting both equivalent linear and non-linear approaches. The results of both equivalent linear and non-linear analyses were compared with the measured ground motions at soil site. It is found that the non-linear analysis better simulates the deamplification of the peak ground acceleration and strong shaking at longer period than the equivalent linear analysis. The obtained results confirm that the deamplification of PGA was due to the strong non-linear behavior of the fluvio-lacustrine deposits

Govinda Prasad Niroula, Deepak Chamlagain and Indra Prasad Acharya
Reliability Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Soil of Combined Pile Raft Foundation (CPRF) of Historic Dharahara View abstract

When the raft foundation alone does not fulfil the design requirement, it may be possible to enhance the performance of the raft by economical addition of piles to transfer the heavy load to soft soil with a rather low total or differential settlement called a combined pile raft foundation (CPRF). The proposed twenty-one storey Dharahara tower at Sundhara, Kathmandu is being constructed with CPRF.This paper focuses on the reliability index, the probability of failure and reliability of Dharahara. Statistical analysis is carried out to determine the mean and variance of log-normally distributed geotechnical uncertainty parameters cohesion, unit weight, friction angle and the normally distributed loading on the foundation. First, the limit equilibrium performance function equation of bearing capacity is prepared using a First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and then solving the value of reliability index by coding on C Programming Language. Obtained value is validated with Euro Code-Basis of Structural Design. The results show that the reliability of the designed foundation system of Dharahara is 0.99999872% and the probability of failure is 0.00000128%. Sensitivity analysis is performed by varying uncertainty parameters and the result shows that friction angle is more sensitive than the other three parameters

Laxman Lamsal, Indra Prasad Acharya
The Effect of Financial and Non-Financial Compensation towards Employee Job Satisfaction View abstract

The main purpose of the study was to examine the effect of financial and nonfinancial compensation towards employee job satisfaction with their education, working department. To produce numeric analysis and testing hypothesis, the researchers used ANOVA Test to measure education level, job position and, working departments with employees’ job satisfaction. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Method was used to measure the effect of financial and non-financial compensation towards employees’ job satisfaction. The analysis was performed through SPSS 26. The testing included 150 respondents of assistant, officer and, managerial level from administration, operation and, credit departments of commercial banks from Maharajgung to Balaju Ringroad Kathmandu. The main research findings revealed that financial and nonfinancial compensation had a significant effect on employee job satisfaction. The finding also shows that the job satisfaction is significantly depends on their current education, job position and, working department too. Similarly, the impact of financial compensation towards job satisfaction was higher than that of non-financial compensation in employees’ job satisfaction. The financial and non-financial compensation had positive impact on employees’ job satisfaction.

Roshan Thapa
Flood Risk Mapping of Kankai Basin: A Case Study of Shivasatakshi Municipality and Kankai Municipality View abstract

−Floods are probably the most frequent, widespread, and disastrous hazards in the world. It causes loss of life, casualties, financial loss, and displacement. Heavy monsoons, fragile geography, and constructions along the embankments cause the river to flood. The increase of population and squatter settlement of landless people living at the bank of the river has tremendous pressure on encroachment of flood plain making them vulnerable to flood damage. This study aims to develop HEC-RAS models for the Kankai River basin for preparation of 1D flood plain maps, vulnerability, risk assessment of RCC building in Shivasatakshi Municipality ward 10, and Kankai Municipality ward 4. Flood frequency analysis for 2, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 1000 years return was carried out by Log Pearson III, Gumbel and Log Normal method based on maximum instantaneous flow recorded at Mainachuli station. The result of flood frequency analyzed by Log Normal method for 2, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 1000 years return period floods shows higher among the results obtained using different methods. The flooding impact of the Kankai River being a large catchment with braided river form inundates vast downstream flood plain regions during high flood levels. With numerous people living along the river and downstream plains, flood risk is predominately high in the Kankai River catchment. With increasing flood intensity, higher flood depth increases and lower flood depth decreases. The inundation of a large area of Shivasatakshi Municipality ward 10 and Kanaki Municipality ward 4 at the bank of the Kankai river indicates that human lives and the physical infrastructure will be more vulnerable to flood disasters in the future. According to a study, the largest areas affected by floods with return periods of 2, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 1000 years, respectively, are 1843.24 ha, 1967.96 ha, 2016.32 ha, 2049.48 ha, 2079.64 ha, 2109.4 ha and 2176.08 ha of the whole basin. As a result, the study may help in future disaster planning and management.

Sujan Pudasaini, Narayan Prasad Gautam and Anup Shrestha